Variant titles

An eponym's title may vary in the date-lines written during his term of office. A governor may be defined by the land he ruled or the chief city and either might be written, sometimes helping modern knowledge of historical geography. Aššur-bēlu-uṣur (695) was governor of the land of Katmuḫ and also the town of Šaḫuppa, Bēl-iqbi (PC) of the land of (Bīt) Zaman and the town of Tušḫan. The term šaknu, with its wide range of meanings from 'appointee' to 'governor', was used for the latter, but alternates with bēl pāḫiti, 'governor,' for Aššur-dūru-uṣur (652), Atar-ilu (673), Ḫanānu (701), Nabû-kēnu-uṣur (690), Nabû-šar-aḫḫēšu (PC), Šamaš-daʾʾinanni (PC), and with pāḫiti alone for Mušallim-Aššur (PC), and Sagabbu (651). As in the Eponym Lists (B1, B2), some scribes wrote ša, 'of', instead of šaknu, recorded for Bēl-iqbi (PC), Danānu (680), Nabû-aḫḫē-ēreš (681), Nabû-daʾinanni (PC), Nabû-šarru-uṣur (682) and, instead of bēl pāḫiti, for Issi-Adad-anēnu (679), Kanūnāyu (666 and PC) and Manzernê (684). There is greater variety for some eponyms: Bēlšunu (PC) is šakin, pāḫiti and bēl [pāḫiti] of Ḫindānu, while Sîn-šarru-uṣur (PC), šakin and bēl pāḫiti of Ḫindanu, appears also as [ ]ḫiti of Nineveh. There was another post-canonical Sîn-šarru-uṣur who was 'palace scribe' (ṭupšar ekalli), and another with the title (amēl)arkû, 'the second', who may have been the same as one of the other two. There were also two post-canonical Nabû-šarru-uṣur's, one who was ṭupšar ekalli or ṭupšar ekalli aššurāyu and another who was rab šarēši; an eponym of this name who was sartennu might be identical with either one. Nabû-tappûtu-alik (PC) was ṭupšarru and rab šarēši, Aššur-rēmanni (PC) was rab šarēši and rab šarēši ša mār šarri. Aššur-ilāya (653) bore the title sukkallu, once qualified as rabû and once as dannu, Daddi (PC) masennu and masennu rabû and Nabû-aḫḫē-iddin (675) masennu and masennu rabû. Ṣalmu-šarru-iqbi (PC) was variously titled turtānu, turtānu šumēli and turtānu of Kummuḫ. The significance of Aššur-gimillī-tirri's title rab ašlāki, 'chief of fullers,' in addition to masennu rabû is not understood.

Variations in spelling and final vowels are common, as with tur-ta-nu and tur-tan for Bēl-ēmuranni (686), place names such as ḫi-in-dà-na, ḫi-in-da-ni, ḫi-in-dan for Sîn-šarru-uṣur (PC), i-sa-na, i-sa-ni for Metūnu (700), ṣi-me-ra, ṣi-me-er and ṣi-mir-ra for Iddin-aḫḫē (688) and even personal names like da-na-nu, dan-na-nu, da-na-a-nu, da-na-ni (680), ḫa-na-nu, ha-na-ni, ḫa-na-na, ḫa-na-an (701). The writing of Dūr-Šarrukēn as Dūr-šarrukka (Nabû-bēlu- uṣur, 672) hints at current pronunciation. Titles usually stood in the nominative form, as masennu rabû, sukkallu 2, but the genitive is occasionally marked by the phonetic complement, continuing the syntax of ina līme: sukkalli 2i, Silim-Aššur (659); masenni rabîi, see Daddî (PC).

Alan Millard

Alan Millard, 'Variant titles', The Eponyms of the Assyrian Empire 910-612 BC, SAAS 2. Original publication: Helsinki, Helsinki University Press, 1994; online contents: SAAo/SAAS2 Project, a sub-project of MOCCI, 2020 []

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