Open syllables: cuneiform signs with one consonant

This reference table gives the main CV (consonant-vowel), VC (vowel-consonant), and V (vowel) signs needed for reading Akkadian in cuneiform. Complete lists are published in the books described on the Using sign lists page.

The consonants are grouped by sound, as described on the phonology page. It explains there why some syllables with different vowels and/or consonants are written with the same sign.

The main CV signs in cuneiform script

ba𒁀 be𒁁 bi, pi2𒁉 bu𒁍
paπ’‰Ί peπ’‰Ώ piπ’‰Ώ pu𒁍
gaπ’‚΅ geπ’„€ giπ’„€ guπ’„ž
kaπ’…— keπ’†  kiπ’†  kuπ’†ͺ
qa2π’‚΅ qe2π’†  qi2π’†  qu2π’†ͺ
da, αΉ­a𒁕 de, αΉ­e𒁲 di, αΉ­i𒁲 du, αΉ­u3𒁺
taπ’‹« teπ’‹Ό tiπ’‹Ύ tuπ’Œ…
za𒍝 ze𒍣 zi𒍣 zu, su2π’ͺ
saπ’Š“ seπ’‹› siπ’‹› suπ’‹’
αΉ£a𒍝 αΉ£e𒍒 αΉ£i𒍒 αΉ£u2π’ͺ
šaπ’Š­ šeπ’ŠΊ šiπ’…† šuπ’‹—
maπ’ˆ  meπ’ˆ¨ miπ’ˆͺ muπ’ˆ¬
naπ’ˆΎ neπ’‰ˆ niπ’‰Œ nu𒉑
laπ’†· leπ’‡· liπ’‡· lu𒇻
raπ’Š reπ’Š‘ riπ’Š‘ ruπ’Š’
haπ’„© heπ’„­ hiπ’„­ huπ’„·
ΚΎaπ’€ͺ ΚΎeπ’€ͺ ΚΎiπ’€ͺ ΚΎuπ’€ͺ
waπ’‰Ώ weπ’‰Ώ wiπ’‰Ώ wuπ’‰Ώ

The main V and VC signs in cuneiform script

aπ’€€ eπ’‚Š iπ’„Ώ u2π’Œ‘
ab, apπ’€Š eb, ep𒅁 ib, ip𒅁 ub, upπ’Œ’
ag, ak, aq𒀝 eg, ek, eqπ’…… ig, ik, iqπ’…… ug, uk, uqπ’ŠŒ
ad, at, aαΉ­π’€œ ed, et, eṭ𒀉 id, it, iṭ𒀉 ud, ut, uαΉ­π’Œ“
az, as, aαΉ£π’Š ez, es, eαΉ£π’„‘ iz, is, iαΉ£π’„‘ uz, us, uαΉ£π’Š»
π’€Έ π’Œ π’…– 𒍑
amπ’„  emπ’…Ž imπ’…Ž umπ’Œ
anπ’€­ enπ’‚— inπ’…” unπ’Œ¦
alπ’€  elπ’‚– ilπ’…‹ ulπ’ŒŒ
arπ’…ˆ erπ’…• irπ’…• urπ’Œ¨
ahπ’„΄ ehπ’„΄ ihπ’„΄ uhπ’„΄
aΚΎπ’€ͺ eΚΎπ’€ͺ iΚΎπ’€ͺ uΚΎπ’€ͺ
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© Higher Education Academy, 2007-11. Since 2015, SAAo is based at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Historisches Seminar (LMU Munich, History Department) - Alexander von Humboldt Chair for Ancient History of the Near and Middle East. Content released under a CC BY-SA 3.0 [] license, 2007-20.
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