Part 1 (81-89)

081   082   083   084   085   086   087   088   089  

081 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006562/]

S. Beverly, who was a member of the University of California, Berkeley, archaeological expedition excavating Nineveh in 1989 and 1990, took some photographs of work being carried out at the eastern end of Nebi Yunus by Iraqi archaeologists and made them available on Flickr, an online image hosting service. Two of the photos taken at Nebi Yunus on June 4, 1990 show a fragment of a stone slab with the image of an Assyrian eunuch and a cuneiform inscription. (The figure on the slab originally had a beard, but the slab had later been re-carved, removing the beard.) The inscription, which is part of a longer annalistic text that would have continued on a series of additional slabs, describes some events from Sargon's first and second regnal years (721 and 720), in particular the defeat and deportation of the Tēša and Tu'umuna (two Aramean tribes in northern Babylonia) and the suppression of a rebellion against Assyria led by Iaū-bi'dī of Hamath. E. Frahm has referred to this text as the Mosul Annals (Last Days p. 77).

Access the composite text [rinap/rinap2/Q006562/] of Sargon II 081


Frahm, AoF 40 pp. 42–54


As noted by E. Frahm, it is not clear if the piece was actually discovered at Nebi Yunus — either erected there by Sargon or brought there from some other site (e.g., Dūr-Šarrukīn) by a later Assyrian monarch (e.g., Sennacherib) — or if it had been found elsewhere and brought to Nebi Yunus at the instruction of M. Jabr (then director of the Mosul Antiquities Office) to be exhibited to a television crew (AoF 40 [2013] pp. 52–53). (See also J.E. Reade in Studies Postgate p. 433.) It should be noted that some bricks with inscriptions dealing with Khorsabad have been found at Nineveh and some other sites (i.e., they were taken there in antiquity); for example, text no. 53 ex. 24 and text no. 54 ex. 4 were also found at Nebi Yunus. J.E. Reade (private communication, March 30, 2019) has suggested to the author that the slab may have originally been erected in Sargon's Juniper Palace at Kalḫu and been brought by Esarhaddon to Nebi Yunus for reuse along with the paving slab of Ashurnasirpal II published by A. Al-Juboori in Iraq 79 (2017) pp. 15-16.

The inscription runs on either side (but not across) the figure carved on the slab. This might suggest that the slab does not come from Khorsabad since the annals inscriptions from Khorsabad are found on a central band between two registers of reliefs (Frahm, AoF 40 [2013] pp. 45–46). Since Frahm estimates that the slab is about 85 cm high, the figure would thus be much smaller in size than comparable figures from Court VIII at Khorsabad; however, he points out that the slab might well come from some other location in or near Khorsabad. He also raises the possibility that the individual depicted was Sîn-aḫu-uṣur (ibid. pp. 51–53).

The current location of the slab is not known, although it is possible that it was once in the Mosul Museum and is now in the Iraq Museum (ibid. p. 44).

Photographs of the slab and inscription were published by Frahm (ibid. pp. 43–44), and the text has been edited from these photographs, but the edition basically follows that of Frahm. Restorations essentially follow those proposed by Frahm and are in particular based upon material in Sargon's Annals (text no. 1 lines 23b–26), the Aššur Charter (text no. 89 lines 18–23), and the Najafabad Stele (text no. 117 ii 4–7).


2013 Frahm, AoF 40 pp. 42–54 (photo, edition, study)
2018 Frahm, Last Days pp. 77–78 no. 11 (lines 4–20, edition, study)

082 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006563/]

This inscription, which is often referred to as the Nineveh Prism or the Broken Prism, is poorly preserved and made up from numerous fragments. Initially, the inscription was thought to be found on two prisms (called prism A and prism B), although exactly which fragments were to be assigned to each was debated. (See for example Winckler, Sar. 2 pls. 44–46 and Gadd, Iraq 16 [1954] pp. 174–175.) The assignment of fragments to the two prisms was based primarily upon their physical preservation and color. In the early 1940s, E.F. Weidner suggested that all the fragments came from one prism (AfO 14 [1941–44] pp. 51–52). Later, H. Tadmor showed that the two main fragments (K 1668a and K 1668b) form an indirect join at one point in what is the fifth column of the inscription and demonstrated that all the pieces likely come from only one actual prism. (See Tadmor, JCS 12 [1958] pp. 87–92 and more recently Fuchs, SAAS 8 pp. 3–15.)

It is possible that the inscription originally found on the prism was also inscribed, in all or in part, on a fragment of a prism discovered at Aššur (VA 8424, text no. 63) and on a fragment of a tablet acquired from an antiquities dealer in Mosul (A 16947, text no. 102). All three appear to use the same chronological assignment of events, an assignment at variance with the one used by the Annals of Sargon from Khorsabad (text nos. 1–6) and by the Najafabad stele (text no. 117). Thus, these two pieces were combined with this inscription in the most recent edition of the text (Fuchs, SAAS 8). Since only a small section of the text on the Aššur prism fragment overlaps what is known of the Nineveh Prism (text no. 63 ii´ 6´–18´ ≈ text no. 82 iii 1´´´–17´´´ and text no. 63 iii´ 7´–14´ ≈ text no. 82 v 1–8) and since there is some reason to suspect its text would have had a different building report at the end, it has been kept separate here (text no. 63). The same holds true for A 16947, which has no passage also preserved on the Nineveh Prism; moreover, the tablet from which it comes would not have been large enough to have the whole text found on the Nineveh Prism.

The inscription records events in Sargon's reign in chronological order down until the king's eleventh regnal year (711) — referred to in this inscription as his ninth regnal year (vii 13´) — before returning to events in his tenth regnal year, and thus A. Fuchs has recently referred to this inscription as the Annals of the Year 711 ("Die Annalen des Jahres 711"). It is not impossible, however, that the final, poorly preserved column of the text might have also recorded events of the king's twelfth regnal year (SAAS 8 p. 4), but if so, the account would have been unexpectedly brief. The prism was made to commemorate work on a ziggurrat (see viii 5´´´), likely that of the god Adad at Nineveh, in view of the reference to that god in the concluding formulae (viii 8´´´ and 10´´´). (See also Fuchs, SAAS 8 pp. 4–6.)

The edition of this text is the result of collaborative work between G. Frame and Fuchs, but is in effect based on the one published by Fuchs in SAAS 8. Differences between the edition here and the earlier one in SAAS 8 are mostly modifications to fit the style of the RINAP series and to conform to the manner of translation used for the other inscriptions included in this volume.

Access the composite text [rinap/rinap2/Q006563/] of Sargon II 082


K 1668a + K 1671 (+) K 1668b + DT 6 (+) K 1669 (+) K 1672 (+) K 1673 (+) K 4818 (+) K 8536 (+) Rm 2,92 (+) Sm 2021 + 82-5-22,8 (+) Sm 2022 (+) Sm 2049 (+) Sm 2050 (+) 79-7-8,14


SubjectDate in Khorsabad
Annals (text nos. 1–6)
ii 1–12I.aRm 2,92 i´ 1–12Introduction
i 1´–2´I.fK 4818 ii´ 1´–2´Uncertain
iiii 1–8II.aRm 2, 92 ii´ 1–8Uncertain
(II.b/c?)(see text no. 102)
ii 1´–13´II.cK 1673 i´ 1´–13´Uncertain
(II.d)(see text no. 63 i´)
iii 1´–25´III.bK 1669 1´–35´Media (Kišesim)Sixth regnal year
iii 26´–35´Media (Ḫarḫar)Sixth regnal year
iii 1´´–12´´III.cK 1673 ii´ 1´–12´Media (Ḫarḫar)Sixth regnal year
Lacuna(III.e)(see text no. 63 ii´)
iii 1´´´–8´´´III.e79-7-8,14 i´ 1´–17´Šilkani of Egypt
iii 9´´´–17´´´[6th regnal year]: ManneaSeventh regnal year
Lacuna[7th regnal year: Urarṭu]Eighth regnal year
iviv 1–20IV.aSm 2021 + 82-5-22,8 i´ 1–20UrarṭuEighth regnal year
iv 1´–66´IV.b-dK 1668a + K 1671 i´ 1´–66´MuṣaṣirEighth regnal year
iv 1´´–8´´IV.e79-7-8,14 ii´ 1´–8´Muṣaṣir (Eighth regnal year)
Lacuna(IV.f)(see text no. 63 iii´)
vv 1–6V.aSm 2021 + 82-5-22,8 ii´ 1–11Muṣaṣir(Eighth regnal year)
v 7–11Eighth regnal year: KarallaNinth regnal year
Lacuna(V.a)(see text no. 63 iii´)
v 1´–59´V.b-dK 1668b + DT 6 i´ 1´–15´Karalla, ḪabḫuNinth regnal year
v 60´–70´(+) K 1668a + K 1671 ii´ 7´–70´ EllipiNinth regnal year
vi Lacuna
vi 1´–10´VI.aSm 2022 i´ 1´–10´Ellipi?(Ninth regnal year)
vi 1´´–13´´VI.bK 1668b + DT 6 ii´ 1´–42´EllipiNinth regnal year
vi 14´´–42´´MediaNinth regnal year
vi 1´´´VI.cSm 2049 i´ 1´–11´Uncertain(Ninth regnal year)
vi 2´´´–11´´´Tabal, Bīt-PurutašNinth regnal year
vi 1´´´´–7´´´´VI.dK 8536 1´–7´Tabal, Bīt-PurutašNinth regnal year
vi 1´´´´´–10´´´´´VI.eK 1672´ i´ 1´–10´Tabal, Bīt-Purutaš(Ninth regnal year)
vii 1´–12´VII.aSm 2022 ii´ 1´–16´Tabal, Bīt-Purutaš(Ninth regnal year)
vii 13´–16´Ninth regnal year: AshdodEleventh regnal year
vii 1´´–48´´VII.bK 1668b + DT 6 iii´ 1´–48´AshdodEleventh regnal year
vii 1´´´–15´´´VII.cSm 2049 ii´ 1´–15´GurgumEleventh regnal year?
vii 1´´´´–6´´´´VII.dSm 2050 i´ 1´–6´GurgumEleventh regnal year?
vii 1´´´´´–9´´´´´VII.eK 1672 ii´ 1´–9´MelidTenth regnal year
viii 1´–15´VIII.bK 1668b + DT 6 iv´ 1´–19´MelidTenth regnal year
viii 16´–19´Anatolian metalic resourcesTenth regnal year
viii 1´´–5´´VIII.dSm 2050 ii´ 1´–5´Uncertain
viii i´´´–12´´´VIII.fK 4818 i´ 1´–12´Blessings, curses; colophon


This eight-sided prism is poorly preserved; in particular, only small sections of columns i, ii, and viii are preserved and the exact placement of some fragments is not certain. Charts indicating the relative positions of the fragments on the various sides of the prism are presented in Fuchs, SAAS 8 pp. 8–9. The exact provenances at Nineveh of the various fragments are not known, but at least some came from excavations in the palace of Sennacherib (G. Smith, Assyrian Discoveries p. 98). The only published photograph of any part of the inscription on the prism is found in Ball, Light p. 185 (K 1668a+); see also now Figure 27.

K 1668a + K 1671, parts of columns iv and v of the Nineveh Prism (text no. 82), which records events up until Sargon's ninth regnal year (711). © The Trustees of the British Museum.

Based upon what is preserved and what duplicates or is similar to passages in other inscriptions, Fuchs has estimated that each column probably had approximately 200 lines, for a total of 1500–1600 lines. He argues that the prism would have been about 60 cm high and 14.5 cm in diameter. (See Fuchs, SAAS 8 pp. 12–15.)

In the chart "Arrangement of Fragments," the column and line numbers given after the museum numbers are those for that particular fragment, not for the Nineveh Prism inscription as a whole. Thus, for example, the end of col. i of the inscription is found on column ii´ (counting from the left) of K 4818.

Cut into the bottom of K 4818 are representations of two animals striding left. (See Caubet, Khorsabad p. 251 fig. 15; Finkel and Reade, ZA 86 [1996] fig. 8 following p. 268; and Fuchs, SAAS 8 p. ii for photographs; see also Niederreiter, Iraq 70 [2008] pp. 54–55 and fig. 2.) One of the animals is a bull and the other probably is as well. Designs are also found on the bottom of the prism fragment of Sargon II from Aššur (text no. 63). Similar symbols are found on glazed bricks and paintings of Sargon; these symbols have been interpreted by I.L. Finkel and J.E. Reade (ZA 86 [1996] pp. 244–268) as hieroglyphs, standing for particular words. They do not see, however, any cogent link between these and the designs on the ends of the prisms. They suggest that the latter may have been "related to the identities of the gods for whose temples the prisms were made" and note that the bull was an attribute of the god Adad (ibid. p. 247). As noted above, the Nineveh Prism may have been created to commemorate work on the ziggurrat of the god Adad.

In view of the fact that the inscription is made up from numerous fragments, it has been thought helpful to the user to indicate in the edition the museum number of each fragment as it comes into use, and also the column number on that particular fragment. Thus, immediately before the edition of i 1´–2´ is "(K 4818 ii´)," indicating that these line are found on the second column (from the left) of the fragment K 4818.


1875 G. Smith, Assyrian Discoveries pp. 288–293 (vi 14´´–37´´, vii 13´´–47´´, translation, retored from texts from Khorsabad)
1884 Delitzsch, Sprache der Kossäer pp. 47–49 (vi 14´´–37´´, transliteration, study)
1886 Bezold, Literatur pp. 90–91 §53.7 (study)
1889 Winckler, Sar. 1 pp. 186–189; and 2 pls. 44–46 (K 1668a+, K 1668b+, K 1669, K 1672, K 1673 ii´, K 4818, K 8536, 79-7-8,14, Sm 2021, Sm 2022, Sm 2050 i´, copy, vii 13´–15´, 1´´–46´´, edition)
1889 Winckler, Untersuchungen pp. 118–119 (vi 14´´–37´´, transliteration)
1897 Rost, MVAG 2/2 pp. 111–115 = 214–218 (vi 14´´–38´´, transliteration)
1898 Winckler, AOF 2/1 pp. 71–73 (vi 1´´´´´–10´´´´´, edition)
1898 Winckler, MVAG 3/1 pp. 53–55 (iii 1´´´–16´´´, vii 37´´b–47´´, edition)
1899 Ball, Light pp. 185–186 (K 1668a+, photo, study)
1908 Olmstead, Western Asia pp. 11–14 and n. 42 (study)
1909 Winckler, Textbuch3 pp. 41–42 (vii 13´–16´, 1´´–48´´ edition)
1911 Sarsowsky, Urkundenbuch p. 31 (vii 1´´–48´´, copy)
1912 Thureau-Dangin, TCL 3 p. IV n. 1, pp. IV–V n. 9, and pp. 76–81 (iv 1´–67´, v 51´–54´, edition; vi 17´´–34´´, study)
1918 Weissbach, ZDMG 72 p. 164 n. 1 (Sm 2022, K 1668b+, study)
1926 Ebeling in Gressmann, ATAT2 p. 351 (vii 13´–15´, 1´´–47´´, translation)
1927 Luckenbill, ARAB 2 pp. 104–111 §§190–218 (translation)
1934 König, AO 33/3–4 pp. 55–58 (vi 14´´–37´´, translation, study)
1940 Eilers, ZDMG 94 p. 203 (vi 29´´, study)
1941–44 Weidner, AfO 14 pp. 48–49 and 51–52 (K 4818, study)
1948 Landsberger, Samʾal pp. 73–75 (vi 2´´´´´–10´´´´´, edition)
1954 Gadd, Iraq 16 pp. 174–175 (study)
1957 Borger, BiOr 14 p. 121b sub S. 229b (vii 29´´, study)
1958 Tadmor, JCS 12 pp. 23–24, p. 77 n. 182, pp. 79 and 87–93 with nn. 286, 291, and 300–302, and pp. 97–99 (Rm 2,92 i´, Sm 2049, copy, i 1–12, v 1–11, 7´–17´, vi 1´´´–11´´´, vii 13´–15´, 1´´´–15´´´, edition, iii 1´´´–8´´´, iv 1–14, vi 2–3, 6–7, viii 2´–19´, 1´´–2´´, 4´´?, 2´´´–12´´´, transliteration; study)
1958 Wiseman, DOTT p. 61 (vii 13´–16´, 1´–46´´, translation)
1961 von Soden, OLZ 56 cols. 577–578 (vii 5´, study)
1969 Oppenheim, ANET3 p. 287 (vii 1´´–46´´, translation)
1969 Weippert, ZDMG Suppl. 1/1 pp. 213–215 (vii 5´, study)
1971 Weippert, Edom pp. 87–111 nos. 10 and 10A (transliteration, study; vii 13´–16´, 1´´–48´´, translation)
1973 Weippert, ZDPV 89 p. 50 (vii 5´, study)
1974 Naʾaman, BASOR 214 p. 32 (vii 25´´–32´´ translation, study)
1977 Briend and Seux, TPOA no. 40B (vii 25´´b–41´´, translation)
1979 Naʾaman, Tel Aviv 6 p. 71 n. 6 (iii 1´´´–2´´´, study)
1984 Borger, TUAT 1/4 pp. 381–382 (vii 13´–16´, 1´´–48´´, translation)
1987 Kapera, Folia Orientalia 24 pp. 29–39 (vii 13´–15´, 1´´–48´´, translation, study)
1988 Naʾaman and Zadok, JCS 40 p. 39 n. 17 (iii 22´–25´, study)
1989 Timm, Moab pp. 334–337 (vii 13´–16´, 25´´b–33´´a, edition, study)
1994 Fuchs, Khorsabad p. 386 (study)
1994 Naʾaman, Zion 59 p. 29 (vii 13´–15´, 1´´–47´´, translation [in Hebrew])
1994 Postgate, Studies Hrouda p. 236 (v 56´b–58´, edition)
1998 Fuchs, SAAS 8 (copy, edition, study)
1999 Naʾaman, UF 31 pp. 426–427 (vi 3´´´´´–8´´´´´, study)
1999-2000 Naʾaman, AfO 46–47 pp. 362–363 (iii 3´, 23´–24´, 1´´´–3´´´, and vi 3´´´´´–8´´´´´, study)
2000 Bagg, Assyrische Wasserbauten p. 144 (vii 35´´b–37´´a, edition)
2001 Holloway, CRRA 45/1 pp. 247–249 (iii 7´–9´, edition, study)
2001 Rollinger, Melammu 2 pp. 245–246 (vii 1´´–47´´, translation)
2002 Holloway, Aššur is King pp. 156–158 nn. 250–251 (iii 6´–9´, edition, study; iii 2´´–4´´, transliteration)
2002 Younger in Chavalas and Younger, Mesopotamia and the Bible pp. 312–314 (iii 1´´´–8´´´, vii 13´-16´, 1´´–48´´, translation)
2005 Vera Chamaza, Rolle Moabs pp. 144–148 nos. 7a–b (vii 13´–15´, 1´´–48´´, edition)
2006 Ponchia, SAAB 15 p. 241 n. 174 (iv 5–6, 10–19, edition)
2007 Aster, JAOS 127 p. 276 (v 12´–14´, edition)
2008 Cogan, Raging Torrent pp. 103–105 no. 25 (vii 13´–16´, 1´´–48´´, translation, study)
2014 Maniori, Campagne di Sargon p. 39 A7 and passim (study)
2017 Liverani, Assyria pp. 206 and 222 (iii 5´b–8´, 6´´b–9´´, translation)

083 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006564/]

A fragment of a prism preserves parts of three columns of an inscription of Sargon II. While only a few signs are preserved for the first column, the other two columns have passages dealing with Sargon's involvement with Iāmānī of Ashdod in his eleventh regnal year (711; ii´ 1–11) and the Chaldean ruler Marduk-apla-iddina in the following years (ii´ 12–15), as well as Sargon's dedication of various valuable commodities to the gods of Babylonia (iii´ 1–13´). According to C.J. Gadd (Iraq 16 [1954] p. 188), this fragment "has a remarkable similarity to the Nimrud prisms in width of columns, style of writing, disposition of text, and general appearance, so great that it might be a duplicate, and in all these respects it is equally unlike the Kuyunjik fragments, to which there can be no question of its belonging." Some pieces in the Kuyunjik collection were not actually found at Nineveh (see Reade, CRRA 30 p. 213) and thus it is not impossible that the fragment came from Nimrud. Gadd (Iraq 16 [1954] p. 188) notes: "What its actual provenance may have been there is no means of ascertaining." Thus, it is not impossible that this piece should be treated with text no. 74; however, it is also clear that they are not exact duplicates (see commentary to text no. 74). This inscription is sometimes referred to as prism C.

Access the composite text [rinap/rinap2/Q006564/] of Sargon II 083




This prism fragment in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum is part of the top of what was probably an eight-sided prism. C. Bezold assigned the fragment to Sennacherib (Cat. 4 p. 1795), but E. Weidner recognized that it actually belongs to Sargon II (AfO 14 [1941–44] p. 49).

As noted by Weidner, col. ii´ 1–11 likely deal with Sargon's involvement with Ashdod and the extradition of Iāmānī from Egypt by the Nubian ruler of that land, Šapatakaʾ (Shebitko). Iāmānī had fled from Assyrian forces in 711 and was extradited at some point in or before 706. See text no. 7 lines 90–112 (especially 107–109 and 111–112), text no. 8 lines 11–14 (especially 14), and text no. 116 lines 19–21 (especially 21).

For ii´ 12–15, see text no. 74 vi 14–17 and text no. 113 line 6´.

For iii 1´–12´, see text no. 2 lines 364–368, text no. 7 lines 141–144, text no. 103 iv 6–22, text no. 74 vii 7–19, and text no. 113 line 26´.


1896 Bezold, Cat. 4 p. 1795 (study)
1941–44 Weidner, AfO 14 pp. 49–51 (copy [erroneously labeled 81-7-23,3], edition)
1945 Alt, ZDPV 67 pp. 138–146 (ii´ 1–11, translation [by Weidner], study)
1954 Gadd, Iraq 16 pp. 174 and 188 (study)
1958 Tadmor, JCS 12 p. 25 n. 26 and p. 80 (study)
1994 Fuchs, Khorsabad p. 387 (study)
1999 Frame, Orientalia NS 68 p. 53 n. 25 (ii´ 1–5, edition)
2014 Maniori, Campagne di Sargon p. 47 G8 and passim (study)

084 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006565/]


The five fragmentary cylinder texts presented here all certainly or probably come from Nineveh. They may actually represent only one or two different inscriptions, but it has been thought best to present them separately. Text nos. 84 and 85 overlap, as do text nos. 86 and 87, and W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard (Cat. p. 13) have suggested that text no. 84 may come from the same cylinder as text no. 86. If text nos. 84–87 represent one inscription, text nos. 84 and 85 would be placed before text nos. 86 and 87. Following the account of the campaign against Mutallu of Kummuḫu (707) at the end of text no. 84 would likely have been the description of one or more other campaigns, concluding with the beginning of the campaign against Marduk-apla-iddina II, the campaign recorded at the start of text nos. 86 and 87. It must be noted, however, that although text nos. 84 and 85 overlap, the former is a barrel cylinder fragment (as are text nos. 86 and 87) while the latter a fragment of a prismatic cylinder. Text no. 88 preserves part of what is likely the introductory section of an inscription, with epithets and participial forms, rather than finite verbal forms as in the other texts. Like text no. 85, text no. 88 is found on a fragment of a prismatic cylinder.


This fragmentary inscription is found upon a barrel cylinder from Nineveh. After mentioning work on temples at Aššur and Ḫarrān, it records the building of the city Dūr-Šarrukīn and its palace. The text then goes on to describe various military actions, including victories over Elam, Mannea, Urarṭu, Hamath, and Kummuḫu, the latter of which took place during Sargon's fourteenth regnal year (708). Since the text refers to the king's fifteenth regnal year (707) in line 7´ and also to the installation of various gods inside Dūr-Šarrukīn (line 9´), which the Assyrian Eponym Chronicle records for that year, this text must have been composed no earlier than 707.

Access the composite text [rinap/rinap2/Q006565/] of Sargon II 084


BM 122614 + BM 122615 (Th 1930-5-8,3 + Th 1930-5-8,4)


BM 122614 + 122615 is part of a solid barrel cylinder. The inscription is written in Neo-Assyrian script. Collation of the inscription revealed a number of inaccuracies in R. Campbell Thompson's copy, in particular: ⸢ša⸣ instead of his ⸢am-ḫur⸣ in line 7´; the presence of several signs at the end of line 12´ omitted by Campbell Thompson; his addition of ma after ú-še-šib in line 20´; and -⸢tu⸣ instead of his -tum a- in line 21´.

With regard to restorations, for lines 1´–2´, see text no. 7 lines 5–7 and 10–12. For lines 7´b–10´, see text no. 7 lines 23, 154–56, and 158–59. For the end of line 7´, see text no. 111 line 10 and for the end of line 9´, see text no. 45 line 18 and text no. 111 line 12. For line 11´a, see text no. 14 lines 28-29. For lines 12´–20´, see text no. 103 ii 22–65; see also text no. 8 lines 6–7 for lines 12´–13´ and text no. 105 ii´ 5 for line 20´. For lines 21´–26´, see text no. 7 lines 74, 85–86, and 112–117.


1940 Thompson, Iraq 7 pp. 86–89 and 112–113 figs. 1–2 no. 1 (copy, edition)
1968 Lambert and Millard, Cat. p. 13 (study)
1994 Fuchs, Khorsabad p. 386 (study)
1998 Fuchs, SAAS 8 p. 5 (lines 3´–4´, partial transliteration)
2009 Frame, Studies Parpola pp. 75–76 and 81 no. g (lines 3´–7´, transliteration; study)
2014 Maniori, Campagne di Sargon p. 52 g7 and passim (study)
2018 Frahm, Last Days pp. 79–80 no. 14 (lines 18´–20´, edition, study, combined with text nos. 103 and 105)

085 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006566/]

A fragment of a clay prismatic cylinder in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum preserves part of the description of the construction of the city of Dūr-Šarrukīn. The first part of the text is poorly preserved but lines 3´–11´ duplicate parts of text no. 84 lines 7´–15´ and it is possible that this fragment should be treated as a duplicate of that inscription.

Access the composite text [rinap/rinap2/Q006566/] of Sargon II 085


BM 98518 (Th 1905-4-9,24)


The piece is merely a thin flake from a clay prismatic cylinder with an inscription in Neo-Assyrian script. Lines 1´–3´ are on one face of the cylinder and 4´–10´ on the adjoining face. Since it is unclear how much is missing on either side of the flake, only minimal restoration has been done in the transliteration.


1914 King, Cat. p. 52 no. 438 (study)
2003 Renger, Studies Wilcke p. 235 n. 38 (study)
2009 Frame, Studies Parpola pp. 81–82 no. i (study)

086 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006567/]

A large fragment of a barrel cylinder in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum preserves part of an account written in Neo-Assyrian script that describes Sargon's defeat of Marduk-apla-iddina II (Merodach-Baladan) at Dūr-Yakīn (709) and his entry into Babylon, an account which is for the most part a duplicate of that found on the Nimrud Prism (text no. 74 vi 23–83) and a Malatya cylinder (text no. 113 lines 8´–26´). The mention of deporting people from Kummuḫu to Bīt-Yakīn (line 15´) would suggest that the text was composed no earlier than 708, when the Assyrian Eponym Chronicle states that that city was captured. The inscription partially overlaps text no. 87, another fragment of a barrel cylinder from Nineveh. Although it is quite possible that the two pieces are duplicates of the same inscription, it has been thought useful to present them separately in view of their fragmentary state.

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BM 98528 (Th 1905-4-9,34)


The text is written in the Neo-Assyrian script. It is suggested in Lambert and Millard, Cat. p. 13 that BM 122614 + 122615 (text no. 84) may come from the same cylinder as BM 98528. With regard to the restorations used in the translation, in addition to text no. 87, note:

Lines 1´–6´: See text no. 74 vi 22–42 and text no. 113 lines 8´–12´; cf. text no. 7 lines 126–129.

Lines 7´–9´: See text no. 74 vi 43–62 and text no. 113 lines 13´–17´. Based upon the spacing, this text abbreviated text no. 74 vi 50–58 and text no. 113 lines 15´–16´, which list the fifteen cities destroyed by Sargon.

Lines 10´–14´: See text no. 74 vi 63–79 and text no. 113 lines 18´–22´; note also text no. 7 lines 134–137.

Lines 15´–16´: See text no. 2 lines 424 and 426, text no. 7 lines 139–140, text no. 64 lines 6´–7´, text no. 87 lines 10´–11´, and text no. 113 lines 23´–24´; cf. text no. 74 vi 80–85.

Lines 17´–18´: See text no. 7 lines 140–142, text no. 103 iv 1–9, and text no. 113 lines 25´–26´.

Since it is not clear how much space is missing at the beginning and end of each line, restorations have been kept to a minimum in the transliteration.


1914 King, Cat. p. 53 no. 447 (study)
2003 Renger, Studies Wilcke p. 235 n. 38 (study)
2009 Frame, Studies Parpola p. 81 no. f (study)

087 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006568/]

W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard identified this fragment of a barrel cylinder in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum as having an inscription of Sargon II (Lambert and Millard, Cat. p. 24). It preserves part of Sargon's account describing his defeat of Merodach-Baladan II at Dūr-Yakīn (709) and his triumphal entry into Babylon. The inscription partially overlaps text no. 86, which is also a fragment of a barrel cylinder from Nineveh. Although the two pieces may be duplicates of the same inscription, it has been thought best to present them separately.

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BM 123416 (1932-12-10,359


The piece comes from the right end of the barrel cylinder. With regard to the restorations used in the translation:

Lines 3´–4´: See text no. 74 vi 47–49 and 62, text no. 86 lines 8´–9´, and text no. 113 lines 14´ and 16´–17´.

Lines 5´–9´: See text no. 2 lines 416–421, text no. 7 lines 135–137, text no. 74 vi 63–79, text no. 86 lines 10´–14´, and text no. 113 lines 18´–22´.

Lines 10´–11´: See text no. 7 lines 139–140, text no. 64 lines 6´–7´, text no. 86 lines 15´–16´, and text no. 113 lines 23´–24´; note also text no. 74 vi 80–85.

Lines 12´–16´: See text no. 7 lines 140–144, text no. 74 vii 7–19, text no. 86 lines 17´–18´, text no. 103 iv 1–22, and text no. 113 lines 25´–26´.

Lines 17´–21´: See text no. 7 lines 145–149, text no. 74 vii 20–38 (Aḫundara instead of Upēri), and text no. 103 iv 23–42.

Where the parallel texts diverge, preference has generally been given in the restoration to text nos. 7 and 86.


1968 Lambert and Millard, Cat. p. 24 (study)
2009 Frame, Studies Parpola p. 81 no. h (study)

088 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006569/]

A fragment from the left end of a prismatic clay cylinder in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum preserves some of the epithets of Sargon, including reference to his laying waste to the land Urarṭu (cf. in particular text no. 13 lines 13–31).

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BM 98724 (Th 1905-4-9,230


The fragment preserves part of two faces of a prism-like cylinder with an inscription written in Neo-Assyrian script. Lines 1´–5´ are on the first face of the fragment and lines 6´–10´ are on the second face.

Lines 2´–4´ are restored based on such passages as text no. 9 lines 6b–7, text no. 13 lines 6–8a, text no. 41 lines 4b–8a, text no. 43 lines 4b and 6, and text no. 44 lines 9–15a. Restorations in lines 5´–10´ are based on text no. 13 lines 13b–29a (cf. text no. 9 lines 12b–15a).


1914 King, Cat. p. 67 no. 632 (study)
2003 Renger, Studies Wilcke p. 235 n. 38 (study)
2009 Frame, Studies Parpola p. 82 no. j (study)

089 [/rinap/rinap2/Q006570/]

The so-called Aššur Charter is one of the earliest of Sargon's royal inscriptions, mentioning events only up to 720 BCE. It describes the historical circumstances connected with Sargon's succession to the Assyrian throne and his actions with regard to the city of Hamath in his "second regnal year" (720). The text commemorates the restoration of privileges for the city of Aššur, which is called āl kidinni, "city of privileged-status," and the dedication of a silver object to the god Aššur. The inscription is found on a clay tablet in the British Museum's Kuyunjik collection and was presumably either copied from the inscription on the silver object (see lines 40b–43) or a model for the inscription to be engraved on that object. H. Tadmor believes that this text "is superior to all other Annalistic sources of Sargon as to historical reliability and exactness of dating" (JCS 12 [1958] p. 32).

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K 1349

Obverse of K 1349 (text no. 89), the Aššur Charter. © The Trustees of the British Museum.


The scribe appears to have utilized every way that he knew to write the word Aššur. The name appears as da-šur (line 1, god), a-šur (line 28, city), da-šur₄ (e.g., lines 12 and 30, country and god), aš-šur (line 14, country), and AN.ŠÁR (e.g., line 19, god); see also bal-til.KI for the city (e.g., line 29). Most restorations follow those proposed by H.W.F. Saggs.


1894 Winckler, Sammlung 2 p. 1 (copy)
1897 Winckler, AOF 1/5 pp. 401–406 (lines 13–43, edition)
1927 Luckenbill, ARAB 2 pp. 69–71 §§132–135 (translation)
1938 Tallqvist, Götterepitheta p. 188 (lines 3–4, study)
1958 Tadmor, JCS 12 pp. 31-32 and n. 78 (line 16, edition; study)
1969 Postgate, Royal Grants p. 12 no. 5 (lines 38–40, edition)
1974 Postgate, Taxation p. 79 no. 1.35 and p. 132 no. 1.4.2 (lines 31, 33, 38–40, edition)
1975 Garelli in Finet, Opposition p. 208 (lines 29b–35, edition)
1975 Saggs, Iraq 37 pp. 11–20 (copy, edition)
1977 Briend and Seux, TPOA no. 33 (lines 1a, 12b–27, translation)
1984 Borger, TUAT 1/4 p. 387 (lines 16–28a, translation)
1992 Becking, Fall of Samaria pp. 34–35 (lines 17b–28a, edition)
1992 Vera Chamaza, SAAB 6 pp. 21–33 (lines 4–15, 27–43, edition)
1994 Frahm, NABU 1994 p. 50 no. 56 (line 8, study)
1994 Fuchs, Khorsabad p. 386 (study)
1995 Mayer, Politik und Kriegskunst pp. 319–320 (lines 30–35, edition)
1998 Mayer, Studies Loretz pp. 546–547 (lines 12b–15, 30–35, edition)
2000 Younger, COS 2 p. 295 no. 2.118C (lines 16–28a, translation)
2005 Vera Chamaza, Rolle Moabs pp. 79–80 n. 557 (lines 16–22, edition)
2008 Cogan, Raging Torrent pp. 96–97 no. 21 (lines 16–28a, translation, study)
2014 Maniori, Campagne di Sargon p. 41 A11 and passim (study)
2018 Frahm, Last Days pp. 59–61 no. 1 (lines 16–28a, edition, study)

Grant Frame

Grant Frame, 'Part 1 (81-89)', RINAP 2: Sargon II, Sargon II, The RINAP 2 sub-project of the RINAP Project, 2021 []

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The RINAP 2 sub-project of the University of Pennsylvania-based RINAP Project, 2020-. The contents of RINAP 2 were prepared by Grant Frame for the University-of-Pennsylvania-based and National-Endowment-for-the-Humanities-funded Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period (RINAP) Project, with the assistance of Joshua Jeffers and the Munich Open-access Cuneiform Corpus Initiative (MOCCI), which is based at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Historisches Seminar (LMU Munich, History Department) - Alexander von Humboldt Chair for Ancient History of the Near and Middle East. Content released under a CC BY-SA 3.0 [] license, 2007-21.
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